Monday, May 25, 2020

“Aggression is necessary for survival Discuss. Base your...

ESSAY TITLE: â€Å"Aggression is necessary for survival: Discuss. Base your answer on psychological theories and models introduced in class.† ABSTRACT Basing itself on the fact that one of the fundamental purposes of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security and to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace.( See attachment 1). The next two paragraphs, are from headlined front page cover article as appeared in the (Sunday Times Magazine-03/04/2011): ‘Your typical, stressed, panicky westerner is in constant alarm mode. It’s the fault of our caveman brains again. We are designed to have a†¦show more content†¦Aggression can also be directed inward taking the form of group violence by individuals or nations. It may be a response to any number of factors including fear, injustice, pain, threat, invasion, lack of control, feelings inadequate or frustrated. Categories Aggression is something that is seen in all walks of life being that its one of the defining characteristics humans have in common with other species within the animal kingdom. It is both an emotional reaction intending to harm- an act of hostility, and, a means of maintaining social order. Just as animals compete over food, mates and homes, to establish their superiority, human beings mainly young males in particular fight for respect, resources and acceptance as partners in relationships pursuing these goals by boasting, bragging, showing off and humiliating other competing males. There are a number of psychological theories and models that have been advanced to explain aggression. In the main they fall under two broad categories. 1) Instinctive, and, 2) Learned response theories In psychological term, aggression refers to a range of behaviours resulting in both physical and psychological harm to oneself, others or objects in the environment occurring in a number of ways, including: 1) Physical, 2) Verbal, 3) Mental, and, 4) Emotional. Instinctive response theories The first theoryShow MoreRelatedMID TERM STUDY GUIDE Essay16611 Words   |  67 PagesAll of the above *** 4. Family conditions that promote resilience include: (11) a. few alternative caretakers. b. older mothers for resilient males. c. opportunities to participate*** d. a strong sense of political commitment. 5. According to your text, some of the things that cause our children problems are the following: (www) (7) a. the changing world, values, and crises *** b. too much sugar and starch in their diets c. a competitive environment d. the focus on self-esteem 6. One ofRead MorePsychology Workbook Essay22836 Words   |  92 Pages |Page(s) | |1.2 What processes do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes (pp. 7-8)? | | Key Terms scientific method -A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing natures answers; relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain, producing testable hypothesis based on the theory and then testing those hypotheses empirically. Exercises 1. What is the mainRead MoreEffect of Broken Home19368 Words   |  78 PagesAcademic Perfomance of Students Coming from Broken Homes CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study: Broken homes are experience by some of the students not only with those in poverty line families but same goes to middle and higher class families. Parents chose to live separately regardless how their children feel and its impact to their lives, however, there are still parents in spite of the situation still supports and care of their children in their studies, and others. It is worthy toRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesphotocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designationsRead MoreOcd - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment131367 Words   |  526 Pagesprint number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 LIMITED PHOTOCOPY LICENSE The Publisher grants to individual purchasers of this book nonassignable permission to reproduce the appendices of this book. This license is limited to you, the individual purchaser, for use with your own cl ients and patients. It does not extend to additional clinicians or practice settings, nor does purchase by an institution constitute a site license. This license does not grant the right to reproduce these materials for resale, redistributionRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages mymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreCase Study148348 Words   |  594 Pagesdisposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. 2  © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Contents Acknowledgements Introduction Using this Manual Planning Your Approach Designing the Teaching Scheme A Guide to Using the Work Assignments A Guide to Using the Case Studies Strategy Lenses The Exploring Strategy Website A Guide to Using the Video Material Exploring Strategy Teachers’ Workshops Teaching NotesRead MoreChrysanthemum Cineraiifolium23103 Words   |  93 PagesGHANA-CAMPUS COURSE NAME: MANAGING PROJECT TEAMS LECTURER’S NAME: DR. DAVID ADZOVIE INDEX NUMBER: UAMM0020 DATE OF SUBMISSION: 13TH JULY, 2012 1 QUESTION THE VIGILANCE PROJECT-CASE OVERVIEW CASE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Develop answers to the following questions: (a) Why is this case about team conflict? What conflicts do you see developing? (b)How is distance affecting team dynamics and performance? (c) What do you think about the decision to appoint sub-team sponsorsRead MoreChange Management49917 Words   |  200 PagesAND CHANGE UNIT – I LEARNING OBJECTIVES The student is expected to learn the following concepts after going through this unit. 1. Change 3. Planned Change 5. Unplanned Change 2. 4. 6. Stimulating Forces Change Agents Lewin’s Three Step Model The change means the alteration of status quo or making things different. It may refer to any alteration which occurs in the overall work environment of an organization. When an organizational system is disturbed by some internal or external forceRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pages. Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Washington s Views On Racial Segregation - 1857 Words

In his 1901 autobiography Up From Slavery author, educator, and orator Booker T. Washington chronicles his rise from Virginia slave to President of Tuskegee Institute. The work outlines Washington’s roadmap for racial uplift which is centered on agricultural and industrial education. Washington argued that hard work and virtuous living — traits instilled African Americans during slavery— would demonstrate the value African Americans possessed to the South and the nation. Operating within the political realities of the time, Washington was able to mobilize a coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, white philanthropists, and politicians from the North and South to build Tuskegee Institute and his vision for the African American community. However, Washington’s strategy asked for African Americans to put aside immediate demands for voting and the end of racial segregation. Washington’s willingness to publicly side step these civil rights iss ues to advocate for slow progress towards true equality earned him powerful critics such as NAACP president W.E.B. DuBois and journalist William Trotter. By the time of Washington’s death in 1915, Jim Crow laws entrenched segregation throughout the South. Washington’s plan for racial uplift was pragmatic and realistic. However, his advocacy for dignity in labor played into white stereotypes that black men and women were made solely for labor. Washington burst onto the national scene after his address at the Atlanta Cotton StatesShow MoreRelatedThe Gilded Age1542 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscrimination. Many groups and individuals attempted to make changes for black Americans but few were successful. Though it was not until the Progressive Era that racial segregation started gaining attention and African Americans, as well as those who wanted them to be treated equally, began making changes and their fight against racial segregation began to improve. The Niagara movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 made up of the intellectual elite of the African American communityRead MoreAnalysis Of Martin Luther King Jrs March On Washington1055 Words   |  5 PagesWhile not being the original point of the historic March on Washington which took place in 1963, Martin Luther King Jr.’s speech as well as his presence in the movement against racist oppression played a major role in the ending of racial prejudice and gave life to the beginning of racial equality. His speech tackled the biggest problem within society head on and the march, consisting of whites, blacks, and members of many different ethnic groups displayed a society that was ready for change. TheRead MoreWashington Organized An Effective Approach Of Gradualism Among Blacks But Was Disrupted By Militant Leaders892 Words   |  4 PagesWashington organized an effective approach of gradualism among blacks but was disrupted by militant leaders like W.E .B. Dubois. After reconstruction, the hopes for full citizenship rights were broken when the government renewed white supremacist control to the South. The government adopted a laissez faire policy, and the Jim Crow laws brought social, occupation, and educational discrimination to the American Negro. In 1896, the Supreme Court’s decision in Plessy v. Ferguson strengthened the segregationRead MoreDr. Martin Luther King Jr s Speech970 Words   |  4 Pageshis I Have a Dream Speech and his letter, Letters from Birmingham. Letters from Birmingham Jail was written from jail after he was shortly arrested for attempting to share his views with clergymen on this racial injustice. Dr. King delivered his I Have a Dream Speech at a crucial Civil Rights rally across from the Washington Memorial. Both times he was trying to send the same message to the American people: Black Americans will no longer allow social injustices. In both works he employs figurativeRead MoreCivil Rights For Af rican Americans1001 Words   |  5 Pagesthey are viewed. The first slaves arrived in Virginia around the 1600’s and was the jumpstart to what was to come in the united states and so began with the purchase of a human being no better than the caucasian person only differing of the color of their skin.In the late 1700’s slaves bean running awa starting a some kind of movenment in a sense that he is running away because he didn’t agree to being a slave. In the 1800’s a slave named Gabriel Poster planned a march to revolt against slaveryRead MoreRacial Profiling Is Not Be Acknowledged As A Law Authorization1476 Words   |  6 PagesRacial profiling emerges as a standout amongst the most dubious issues in the United States of America as well as different parts of the world all the more so in the created nations. Basically, it includes the utilization of the ethnicity, race or nationality of a person as the fundamental variable of law authorization methodology, for example, arbitrary checks, capture and so forth. In the United States of America, racial profiling is generally considered by numerous individuals as an apparatusRead MoreBooker T. Washington. B. Du Bois1138 Words   |  5 PagesNovember 2014 Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois Essay Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois had significantly different views on how blacks could move towards attaining racial equality during the late nineteenth century in the United States. Washington believed that blacks should work hard to earn economic freedom by means of striving for strong education objectives. Du Bois believed that only political empowerment and voting could end African Americans oppression. Washington had the better solutionRead MoreIs God Racist? Essays1019 Words   |  5 Pagesinequalities amongst our populace. Racial divisions run deep, and there is an undeniable relationship between religion and racism. Since the inception of this country, we have been racially divided. These divisions continued throughout the 20th century, and continue to this very day. These divisions often include, but are not limited to social and political values. Racism in Americas religious institutions can be traced to the very roots of America. Original religious views on other races had littleRead MoreWilliam Edward Burghardt Du Bois Essay1333 Words   |  6 Pagesthe experience of Americans, both black and white. While Du Bois passed away a mere day before the March on Washington in 1963, his rhetoric remains vital to anti-racist philosophy; for today, Americans live in an age of colorblind racism. It is a commonly held amongst white Americans belief that all Americans are treated equally and fairly, often citing the civil rights movements of the 1960’s in which the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 came to be. However, as of 2016, 42%Read MoreCivil Rights/Secret Life of Bees986 Words   |  4 PagesBridget Baker Mrs. McQuade Period 2 4/10/12 Racial Discrimination and Segregation In 1619 the very first African Americans arrived in America, coming over for the purpose of forced slavery. It’s been nearly four hundred years since then and African Americans are still not treated completely equal. But throughout the years major steps towards equality have been made and as a whole the United States is close to reaching this goal. The first key action taken was abolishing slavery in 1865, but

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Case Study Girls Inc. - 1478 Words

Micro Case Paper I had the privilege to work with Girls Incorporated of Tarrant County agency. Girls Incorporated of Tarrant County referred to as Girls Inc is a national non-profit youth organization. Girls Inc’ mission is to inspire all girls to be strong, smart and bold. This agency has been a great place for most girls from age 6 to 18 since they opened in 1976. For more than 65 years, Girls Inc. has provided integral educational programs to millions of American girls, especially those in disreputable and high risks areas. Moreover, Girls Inc offers nationally researched programs that motivate girls to confront and master their intellectual, physical and emotional challenges. Most importantly, this agency is not only dedicated to inspire the girls to be strong, smart and bold, but also strive to reach out to them in order to provide proper care and better serve them. Even though Girls’ Inc first name was originally Arlington Girls Club with a mission of providing as sistance to girls at a center located in East Arlington, they have flourished tremendously. Now, they became an outreach agency and a multisite organization serving hundreds of girls on a daily basis and over 11,00 annually. In this paper, I will first summarize my assessment information by first enumerating several aspects relating to one particular girl in the group of girls I interacted with at YWLA, summarize the goal planning, the intervention plan, and the actual intervention. I will also describe myShow MoreRelatedEssay Truth about Teen Pregnancy1285 Words   |  6 Pagesare still higher in 1993 then they were in 1963. In 1963, the case of Abington vs. Schempp, the United States Supreme Court banned school prayer and bible reading in school. Since then our nation has experienced increasing pregnancy rates. (Bennett, 1). 2. Birth rates for unwed girls from the ages 15-19 have now increased every year since 1963. Latest 1993 figures showed 45 births per 1,000. Additionally, birth rates for girls ages 10-14 have increased 553% since the removal of religious principlesRead MoreShoe Line Named Violette By Terry Richardson1628 Words   |  7 Pagesand couture. Vibe listed the 31 Most Stylish People Under 31 with Vashtie coming in at the 23rd spot among names like Kanye West, Rihanna and Justin Timberlake (Monae 2015). She was also featured in Nylon Magazine as part of their lineup of It Girls. In this same year Vashtie interviewed Sean Diddy Combs for Supreme Magazine, which was photographed by Terry Richardson, and was included in the Nike Destroyer Campaign alongside notables like Dee Ricky, a twin fashion icon duo, and Scott CampbellRead MoreFemale Infanticide and Foeticide Essay814 Words   |  4 Pagesthroughout India. The main factors that is responsible for the increase in the incidence of fe male infanticide and foeticide is the low status of women, son preference, and the practice of dowry across all casts groups. The low status of women and girls is due to cultural beliefs and the material cost they represent to their families. Vanaja Dhruvarajan says that there is a belief regarding the nature of men and women: Men are ritually pure, physically strong, and emotionally mature; women, on theRead MoreThe Debate Over Single Sex Schools958 Words   |  4 Pagesa worldwide range. In this essay, the cases for and against single-sex education will be discussed. This essay will firstly present some positive impacts of single-sex schools, including an increase in students’ academic achievement and a decrease in classroom relationship problems related to gender. It will then discuss the reasons against single-sex schools. It will focus on two aspects, including the negligible difference in learning styles between girls and boys, and the inevitable consequenceRead MoreDisney s Influence On Young Girls Gender Role And Self Esteem1730 Words   |  7 PagesDISNEY’S INFLUENCE ON YOUNG GIRLS GENDER ROLE AND SELF-ESTEEM Genevie M. Sauceda Texas A M University – San Antonio Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine if a relationship between gender role and self-esteem exist in girls who view Disney Princess movies. Twenty-one elementary fifth grade girl’s ages ten and eleven were questioned on how Disney princess movies influence their perception of gender role and self-esteem. The results suggest there is a relationship between the two variablesRead MoreUnion Organizing Case Study : Union1314 Words   |  6 PagesUnion Organizing Case Study Individuals have been at work for thousands and thousands of years. Over the last century there have been many changes in the United States that protects workers in their positions and the duties they perform. There has been many changes for employers as well that protects companies and organization and offers beneficial information to keep them in compliance with changes and away from any from and form of discrimination. Over the last century there has been the organizationRead MoreThe Expectations And Birth Of A Child1030 Words   |  5 Pages(Gardner, 2015). This is further suggested in that while most sociologist are of the belief that gender is a social construct, the same is not entirely attributed to such a social context (MindEdge, Inc., 2016). Without argument, one of the most basic and obvious biological distinctions between a boy and a girl is made in connection to the development of the sex organs of the unborn, in utero. Following birth, the newborn is then assigned a gender, i.e., male or female. His or her, he or she, and similarRead MoreSingle Sex Schools Are Becoming More Common891 Words   |  4 Pagesaround the world. In this essay, the cases for and against single-sex education will be discussed. This essay will firstly present some positive impacts of single-sex schools, including an increase in students’ academic achievement and a decrease in classroom relationship problems related to gender. It will then discuss the reasons against single-sex schools. It will focus on two aspects, including the negligible difference in learning styles between boys and girls, and the inevitable consequence thatRead MoreConcept Paper: Bullying1640 Words   |  7 PagesGeneral Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc., ------------------------------------------------- Bulaong, General Santos City ------------------------------------------------- THESIS CONCEPT PAPER Group Members: Cherry Mae S. Bercero Date: June 24, 2013 Kenneth Jay M. Erasmo Florean Joyce J. Ramillano Keziah Keila C. Vallente Course: BS PSYCHOLOGY Part I. Research Topic / Area: The Level of Awareness on Bullying among Students of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School FoundationRead MoreImpact of Beauty in the Media on Young Women1586 Words   |  7 Pageseating disorders. Technology is growing at an alarming exponential rate. With new technology comes new ways to manipulate a photo to make the ideal woman. The use of photoshop and other photo manipulation software creates an impossible body type that girls aspire for. A body type that mirrors a skeletal mannequin in a department store draped with the new seasons trending clothes designs. A body type that women die for. But what we really see in magazines, plastered all over giant billboards and strewn

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Zero Tolerance Essay Research Paper Zero ToleranceTo free essay sample

Zero Tolerance Essay, Research Paper Zero Tolerance To the best of my cognition on the topic the nothing tolerance regulation is a really good regulation, because there is no room for mistake on the portion of the condemnable justness systemand there is no room for a deceptive alibi. So the nothing tolerance policy is good. For illustration, say a individual pulls a fire dismay merely to acquire out of a category. The principal would suspend the pupil for 3 to 5 yearss and he/she would make 5 to 15 hour. of Fire Prevention School for that offense, but now what if that individual is a really good prevaricator, they could misdirect the principal non to suspend them by possibly naming it an accident. Now, the chief negotiations to the fire section and gets him out of the Fire Prevention School. So what sort of illustration is that puting? It says, a good prevaricator can acquire away with anything. We will write a custom essay sample on Zero Tolerance Essay Research Paper Zero ToleranceTo or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So in that instance, Zero tolerance is really good. It sets an illustration, but on the other manus, the individual who pulled the dismay by mistake gets suspended and 5-15 hour of school. But there are ever inocent peopleaffected by every jurisprudence but still it does protect agenst misleading and decietful people. In my eyes the penalty fits the offense, no affair if the offense was a error. Another illustration could possible be made. For illustration if you hit a kid on a motorcycle, allow s state he swerves torward you and you could nt halt and the kid dies. Then you are charged with Involentary Manslaughter so some inocent people ever get hurt. But now lets say the auto hit the kid on intent so if the zero tolerance policy was non in consequence he could claim it to be an accident and likely acquire off but since the zero tolerance policyis at that place, he will function clip no affair what. But yet I besides think even zero tolerance is excessively easy, the US. should convey back Capital Punishment because it makes you believe before you commit a offense. In other states, if you steal, they cut off your manus and that truly direct a message to all the felons that We are non traveling to take it any longer. So the nothing tolerance policy is really good measure in the condemnable justness war torward their major end, which in my head is capital penalty.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Understanding The Impact Of Informational Package Elements free essay sample

Packaging seems to be one of the most important factors in purchase decisions made at the point of sale (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996), where it becomes an essential part of the selling process (Rettie and Brewer, 2000). Munyadzi (2013) reveals the function of packaging has transformed over the years as it was solely used as a means of protecting the product and making sure that the product could be consumed without being altered as it is transported form one point to the other. The dynamic nature of the marketing environment has propelled packaging to have other functions that also act as powerful marketing tools (Mitchell 2003). Meanwhile, Kotler (2012) expressed packaging has been transformed to become one of the most important and powerful tools for promoting products, eye-catching the attention of prospective consumers and communicating the value of the brand to the target market. According to Stewart (2003), food product development and innovation continues to be seen as a fundamental strategy for competitive success and survival within a competitive global market. We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding The Impact Of Informational Package Elements or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nowadays, many food retailers are facing a somewhat challenging scenario where the cost of marketing is also rising and it is becoming more difficult to maintain sales for brands that are not the first choice household name (Peters, 2004). In addition, consumers are becoming more demanding in terms of quality and choice and are constantly seeking a product tailored to their every want and need (Mitchell, 2003). Products are developed to, and indeed are expected by consumers to taste good; therefore, it is not surprising that consumers will increasingly make their initial choices based on aesthetic value (Dumaine, 1991). Thus, the question commonly faced by many food retailers is how to distinguish or differentiate their product from competing products. During the 1980s, UK food retailers began to enhance the pack design of their products, discovering that improvements in packaging design and product quality enabled them to compete directly with food manufacturers (Southgate, 1994). 1. 2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Packaging could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications, necessitating more detail analysis of its elements an impact of those elements on consumer buying behavior. Analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice can reveal the impact of package its elements on consumer’s purchase decision. For this purpose main package’s elements could be identified into food label information (Ingredient, instruction, weight, expiry date, halal mark), brand element (brand name, slogan, logo, symbol) and nutrition information (protein, energy, vitamin, sugar, fat). The impact of package its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. The aim of this study if to determine the impact of informational package elements toward consumer purchasing behavior for carbonated drinks product. So, the question is to what extent does, brand elements, nutritional elements, and food level information influence consumer buying decision among residents in Melaka Tengah towards carbonated drinks product. 1. 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Based on the specific objectives above, this study seeks to find the answers for the following research questions. 1. Is there any significant relationship between the brand elements, nutritional elements, and food level information on the consumer buying decision? 2. What are the most effective packaging elements that can influences consumer to buy the product promoted? 1. 4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES General Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the effect of packaging elements on consumer purchasing decision towards carbonated drinks. Specific Objectives 1. To measure the level of influential of packaging elements of carbonated drinks and its specific dimensions among Melaka Tengah Community. 2. To determine the relationship between independent variables (brand elements, nutritional elements, and food level information) and its specific elements toward consumer purchasing decisions among Melaka Tengah Community. 3. To indicates the most influential element that effect purchasing behavior of customer. 1. 5 HYPOTHESIS a) Brand Elements, H1 H1: Brand elements has a significant impact on consumer’ purchase decisions b) Nutritional Elements, H2 H2: Nutritional elements has a significant impact on consumer’ purchase decisions c) Food Level Information, H3 H3: Food level information has a significant impact on consumer’ purchase decisions 1. 6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The findings of this research will help the company to determine what the important key factor that influence consumer buying decision on carbonated drinks whether it is brand elements, nutritional elements, and food level information. Other than that, it is also help the management to make corrective action to increase the level of consumer buying decision and at the same time to improve the company’s performance in order to help them to be more competent in future. The result from the research will also help to enhance the body of knowledge which is to reinforce the existing and also develop new theory. The study also will help to get better understanding of the variables which have been used in this research 1. 7 LIMITATION OF STUDY The findings of this study have to be interpreted considering few limitations. Firstly, limitations include the time constraint. Due to other responsibility, the time given is limited to complete the research with prescribed time. To get a suitable topic that is related to the research, an enough time is needed in order to complete the research. A lot of time is required to know and fully understand about the problem as stated in many journal articles. To construct the questionnaires its required a quite long time to complete it because it needs to make an observation and by interview some people in that organization or company to get the accurate data about this research proposal. And also to ensure the words and meaning were made clear to every respondent, there is always a possibility that individual respondent might interpret the meanings of the questions differently from others. The last limitation is the cost constraint. As a researcher, we have limited sources of budget due to Internet fees, transportation and others. We need amount of money to get accurate information. This also causes by over budget, by doing a research they didn’t manage their sources or budget very well and its limits the research to conduct a survey in a large level. Since this research need us to make observation, interview and spreading out the questionnaire to the respondent, some cost might incur to conduct overall process. 2. 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES BRAND ELEMENTS Brand element according to Keller (2008) can be brought as many dimensions that differentiate them from other product designed to satisfy one need; these differences may be rational or tangible, or symbolic, emotional and intangible. Furthermore, whilst most brand practitioners argue that the package design is an important component of the brand strategy (Dadzie and Mensah, 2011), literature on packaging information (Silayoi and Speece, 2004; Estiri et. al 2010) tends to view the brand elements as a key ingredient of the product informational package elements. The proponents of branding position that in the consumers’ mind, a well known brand can be dependent upon and consumers tend to perceive the quality of the products based on the brand strategy (Aaker, 1991). One of the brand elements is brand name where substitutions have become a frequent phenomenon, and companies confronted with rebranding are often mentioned in the business press (Muzellec and Lambkin, 2009). Brand name substitution consists of changing the name of a product or service which is marketed by a company (Muzellec and Lambkin, 2006; Muzellec and Lambkin, 2007). Next is a slogan, according to Rogers (2008) the acceptance of the concept of purchasing infused drinks from any outlet by the young consumers’ signals a form of social change or lifestyle. The slogan falls under brands element said that slogan can possess an idea worthy to consumer loyalty Martinez, 2004). Other part that contributes under brand element is name and logo gives contribute to a key component of brand identity, since they are the most pervasive elements in corporate and brand communications, and provide instant recognition of the brand (Schechter, 1993; Henderson and Cote, 1998). In this context, as a brand identity sign, a logo can refer to a variety of graphic or typeface elements, ranging from word-driven, i. e. including word marks or stylized letter marks, through to image-driven, i. e. including pictorial marks (Henderson and Cote, 1998; Wheeler, 2003). More recently, Walsh et al. (2010, 2011) examined consumer responses to logo shape redesigns (from angular to more rounded shapes). Theorists agree that well-designed logos should be recognizable, evoke positive affect and allow the transmission of a set of shared associations (Kohli, 2002). Lastly, a symbol under brand element shows that according to Smelser (1973) an object which is representation of a different entity. Moreover, Hostetler (1964) said that this elements can be defined as a symbol as a â€Å"visible object† that is representative of an idea. Symbols can also be representative of the worldview of a social or cultural group (White, 1949) and therefore be presented in art form; for example through architecture (Ikebude, 2009). NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION Nutrition elements are one of label that contain at carbonated drinks. According to Dougherty (2006). Most consumers would like to see nutrition information at places where they go out to eat; however, only limited research has explored how well this information is understood by consumers and which consumers may be most likely to use menu labels in making decisions about what to purchase. Nutrition labelling reduces consumers’ intentions to purchase items high in calories and fat, especially when there is a greater discrepancy between the perceived content and actual content. Loureiro et al (2006) found that consumers were willing to pay approximately 11% higher for a box of cookies with a nutritional label than one without such a label. One of the nutrition elements are energy. If products have no special labelling or have a number of complex methods of indicating the energy contents of that product, the actual energy contents can vary dramatically across a range of similar products (Fineli 2011). Understanding what the energy contents of a product might be is then dependent on a consumers skill and knowledge in interpreting this information (Drichoutis et al. 2006). Another elements of nutrition elements are vitamins. Women are more concerned about the low fat of the products as safety of the food. On the contrary, men are concerned about the necessary vitamins, freshness and label information whereas both are concerned about expiry date as most important aspect toward food safety. In the present context, information on negative nutrients, such as fat, may be more salient than information on positive nutrients, such as vitamins (Burton,1993). Motivation to search for information is greater when consumers are provided with highly arousing negative consequences and specific ways to minimise them (Moorman, 1990). Sugar also one of the elements in nutrition. According to Blisard (1994) These concern have also been fuelled by recent consumer group studies, which have stirred controversy about whether added sugar and starches compromise nutrition. A slightly smaller percentage,74 percent, indicated that they had heard about health problems associated with consuming excessive amounts of sugars. Protein also been classified as one of nutrition elements. Whey and soy proteins contributed different sensory properties to the beverages and bars. In blinded comparisons, consumers preferred bars and beverages with whey or mixtures of whey and soy protein to applications with soy protein alone. The consumer perception of these proteins when specifically labelled as such in bars and beverages was not addressed (Childs et al,2007). The last element in nutrition are fat content. According to Kim (2000) , consumers who used nutrition labels tend to consume less calories from fat and saturated fat ,and to eat a diet low in fat (Finke 2000). In addition, consumers evaluated food products displaying nutrition labels as more valuable than non-labelled products. (Loureiro, 2006). FOOD LABEL INFORMATION Food labels are the prime channel for information dissemination between food producers and retailers, and the consumers of food products (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO, WHO), 2001). Other that, they contain various information elements which can be classified into different categories: for example, mandatory (Her Majesty’s Government, 1996) and commercial (McIlveen and Semple, 2002). According to Doi (2007) Halal is a Quranic term that means permitted, allowed, lawful or legal. Its opposite is Haram (forbidden, unlawful or illegal). In Islam and according to Shariah (Islamic Law), all issues concerning Halal or Haram and even all disputes should be referred to Quran and Sunnah (prophetic tradition). Furthermore a trust mark (Halal logo) can be placed on the Halal products for Muslims to know that the product is Halal (Cheng, 2008). Research has shown although current Halal standards regulate food production, preparation, handling and storage to some degree, it does not ensure that the product is Halal at the point of consumption (Tieman, 2006). Harcar and Karakaya (2005) found that consumers were most likely to check expiration dates prior to purchasing a product if the expiration dates were easily found and that consumers ceased checking the dates if they had difficulty finding them. They speculated that the size, color, or font, as well as placement on product packages, could contribute to the consumer’s difficulty in locating the date. According to the 1990 Food Marketing Institute’s Trends Survey, 72% of people check product expiration dates and women are more inclined to check than men (Mueller,1991, as cited in Harcar Karakaya, 2005). Pepsi CO Inc. (1981) shows that soft drink manufacturers justi? ed adding caffeine to soft drinks on the basis that caffeine was a ? avor enhancer. If caffeine had not been accepted as a ? avor enhancer, but had been regarded as a psychoactive ingredient, soft drinks might have been regulated by the FDA as drugs. However, the FDA approved caffeine and limited the maximum caffeine content of cola-type soft drinks to 0. 02% caffeine, or 71 mg/12 ? uid oz (Food and Drug Administration, 2003). Previous studies have already investigated the heavier weight that negative, as compared with positive information, has on the impression formation process (Fiske, 1980; Mizerski, 1982). In order to minimize this potential negative effect of the product recall message on consumer behaviour, the company making a product recall should emphasize that it is taking action in a socially responsible manner (Mowen et al. , 1981). According to Mowen (1980), using an experimental approach, manipulated variables as consumer knowledge of the company making the product recall, whether or not the company was compelled to make the recall by a consumer product safety commission, and whether or not other manufacturers had had a similar defect. Products that are innovations â€Å"New-to-the-world products revolutionize existing product categories, or define wholly new ones† (Crawford et al. , 2003). Furthermore, these new products may include an innovative technology and require consumer instruction (Cooper, 2011). 2. 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFORMATIONAL PACKAGE ELEMENTS AND CONSUMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR Despite the availability of numerous researches on the impact of informational package elements on consumer purchase behaviour, there seems to be no agreement on how consumers will react to different socio-cultural set-ups. In this study, the following informational elements: brand elements, nutritional information and food labels are going to be broken down so that the sub variables will be examined to see how they influence the purchase behaviour of university students. The outlined informational elements are divided as follows: brand elements (brand name, slogans, Logos, symbols and flavour), nutritional information (energy, protein, fat, vitamins, fibre, calcium and sugar) and food label information (instruction of use, expiry date, weight/volume, ingredients and storage conditions). The ultimate findings would then be employed by marketing managers to develop best fitting strategies on how best they may manipulate consumer purchase behaviour through the use of informational package elements. The following model is drawn using basis upon which our hypo theses are crafted. 2. 3 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK H1 H2 H3 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 RESEARCH DESIGN This study is a quantitative research study. This study is designed to use a descriptive correlation design to investigate the differences in means and frequency distribution of job satisfaction, the dependent variable and the selected independent variable and its dimensions. Firstly, the dependent and the independent variables are identified. Then, the measurement scales of the identified variables is sought and determined. Before the measurement scales is used, the validity and reliability of the scales will be assessed. Secondly, a representative sample is selected to represent the population of the study so that the results of the study could be generalized to the population at large. Next, the data were collected from the sample using the validated and reliable research instrument. After the data is collected, it will be analyzed using a combination of statistical analyses such as descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Among the descriptive statistics used will be frequency distribution, measures of central tendency and measures of variability. Correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Further clarification of data collection and data analysis procedures will be presented in the later part of this chapter. 3. 2 MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION Questionnaires are used as a research instrument to collect data from the respondents identified for this study. The questionnaires consist on the effectiveness of main package’s label information (Ingredient, instruction, weight, expiry date, halal mark), brand element (brand name, slogan, logo, symbol) and nutrition information (protein, energy, vitamin, sugar, fat) towards the consumer buying decision. 3. 3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY Almost all scientific method of research obtain their information from the respondents who provide the information and they are called population. With this assumption, the populations of the respondents for this research consist of consumer who drinks carbonated drinks in Melaka Tengah . In this study, 80 respondents will be chosen from population consisting of 40 males and 40 females. 3. 4 SAMPLING The sample size is 80 respondents. The sampling frame is a physical representation of all the elements in the population from which the sample is drawn. In this research a randomly 80 respondents will be chosen at Dataran Pahlawan at Mynews. com retail outlet because it is one of the outlet that sells carbonated drinks that also have high visitors. The main reason to sample is to save time and money. 3. 5 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES This research used self administrated questionnaire for collecting data. Using self report paper pen, straight answer questionnaire techniques, consumer will be asked to rate their preference on a five point Likert scale on which they are to indicate whether items are â€Å"strongly disagree†, â€Å"disagree†, â€Å"neutral†, â€Å"agree† and â€Å"strongly agree† characteristics of themselves. Dichotomous scale that used elicits a Yes or No, Category scale that used multiple items to elicit a single response. In Multiple-Choices Questions, respondents will ask to select one or more of the alternative given. In the questionnaire, multiple-choices questions were asked in section 1 (Demographic Information). 3. 6 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 1) Descriptive statistic According to Leary (2001), descriptive statistics is a powerful tool to describe and understand the data so that they can be easily comprehended by others. The descriptive statistics employed in this study were as followed: (1) To measures of central tendency; (2) To measures of variability; and (3) frequency distribution. These statistics were used to extract and summarize quantitative information from the sample. Measures of central tendency helped to find a single index that could represent the whole set of measure. This study utilized the mean or average to describe the data in terms of average values. Mean was chosen because the variables investigated in this study such as the dependent variable (work motivation, organizational commitment and corporate culture) and the independent variable (job satisfaction) were all interval data. This study also employed the most commonly used measure of variability and standard deviation to find out the dispersion or variability of the data set. Since it is also an interval statistic as the mean, it could be used to describe the degree of dispersion of all the interval variables (dependent and the independent variables). Frequency distribution was used to extract important features of the quantitative data of the study. The original data collected were group and presented in a summarized form by constructing appropriate tables and charts. 2) Correlation statistic According to Ary, et al. (1996), correlation statistic is a statistical technique used to measure the strength of the association or co-variation that exists between two quantitative variables. The strength of the relationship between two variables is measured by the coefficient of correlation, r, whose values may range from -1 to +1. If the direction of the relationship between two variables is positive, it means that high scores of one variable are associated with high scores of another variable and vice versa. When there is a relationship, correlation coefficient can also determine the strength of the relationship whether the variables have a strong relationship or a weak relationship. The closeness of the correlation coefficient to one implies a strong relationship between the two variables. When the correlation coefficient is zero, there is no correlation between the two variables. In this study, Elifson, Runyon, and Haber (1998) rule of the thumb was used to interpret the strength of the relationship (Table 1). Table 1: Criteria for Interpreting Strength of Relationship between Two Variables r value Strength of Relationship 0. 01 – 0. 30 Weak; Almost negligible relationship 0. 31 – 0. 70 Moderate; substantial relationship 0. 71 – 0. 99 Strong; marked relationship 1. 00 Perfect relationship 0 No relationship Source: Elifson, Runyon Haber, 1998 This study used Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of correlation (Pearson r) developed by Karl Pearson as the correlation index. This index was chosen because this index can only be used when the scale of measurement for the variables is interval or ratio (Runyon, Haber, Pittenger, and Coleman 2000). Furthermore, Pearson Correlation Coefficient is also an appropriate measure of relationship between two variables when the quantitative variables are normally distributed. 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Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Modals in Different Varieties of English

Modals in Different Varieties of English Introduction The modern use of some words can be considered wrong though the changes that are natural for the language take place and should be treated as the transitional period in formation of new grammar and vocabulary. In this respect, I would like to analyse the use of modal words and modal verbs in different varieties of English by contemporary speakers comparing those with the results received a few decades earlier.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Modals in Different Varieties of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More So, I would like to trace the relation between the origin of speakers and their ability to use modals correctly taking into account the current situation in the language environment and the one that occurred a few decades earlier with regard to the varieties of British and American English in different age groups. Aim and Scope The main purpose of this paper consists in investigating t he use of modal verbs and expressions in different varieties of English language including mostly the difference between American and British English. Besides, it is necessary to analyse the peculiarities of use of modals by teenagers and children with the help of examples from different corpora of English language. These corpora include examples of speech from different settings and origins including different age groups, namely children and teenagers, various sources of information such as documents and newspaper articles. One of the major peculiarities of these corpora is the variety of genres including press reportage, editorials, reviews of books and music, letters, periodicals, catalogues and reports as well as fiction, science fiction, adventure, humour, and romance. Every source will be analysed with regard to the frequency of use of modals in different functions and shifts in the meaning conveyed with the help of modals that can be observed in terms of the period to which t he examples refer. Besides, it is also necessary to investigate how children and teenagers were affected by changes in the meaning and the frequency of use of modals by adults and teenagers/children. Previous Work As a rule, linguists investigate the most interesting aspects of the language usage in terms of results of the researches to be used in practice. In this respect, the changes that occurred in the use of modals can be related to the shifts in preferences of using modals and quasi-modals. Besides, population of different continents uses modals and quasi-modals with different frequency as well as representatives of different generations. Moreover, the results of the research can be influenced by the origin of the example taking into account the oral speech and written language because the genre to which the example is referred characterises the formality.Advertising Looking for research paper on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, formal language is supposed to contain more modals whereas informal language is sure to contain more quasi-modals and fewer modals. As reported by Collins, the shift in the use of modals can be seen while comparing the results from British and American English-speaking population in the early 1960s and in the early 1990s respectively (7). These findings analyse the figures presented in studies by Leech (2003), smith (2003), and Mair and Leech (2006) who investigated the changes that took place in the use of modals taking into account American and British varieties of English language. Every member of the society has a right to express his/her thoughts in different ways. The variety of ways can be seen from the COLT corpus that includes Bergen Corpus of London Teenage English being a vivid representation of variety of nonverbal means of communication among teenagers and communication of teenagers with members of their families including other sibl ings and parents, teachers, and strangers. As a rule, teenagers use more informal language when they communicate with peers; this variant of communication differs greatly from the language used by teenagers with parents and teachers. However, the main aim of the current research is to investigate the frequency of use of different modals and quasi-modals and the percentage of use taking into account modals and quasi-modals ratio in the American corpus primarily. As suggested by Krug, the attention to quasi-modals is not sufficient in terms of scholarly articles and researches conducted on this issue (1). The researcher analyses the modals and quasi-modals with regard to their grammaticalization and categories typical for modals: â€Å"the most salient determinants in the present case are almost certainly phonological form, morphosyntactic properties and discourse frequency of potential category members† (Krug 3). Though many researchers have compared and contrasted the frequen cy of using different parts of speech and various phrases and word combinations by native speakers of English with regard to different dialects and genres, it is still necessary to investigate the number of modal used in different periods with regard to information from the Corpus of historical American English, contemporary situation with regard to the information from the Corpus of contemporary American English, and contrast the number of modals used by Americans with the one used by users of the British variety of English with regard to the information from the British national corpus. In other words, the current research is focused on the analysis of data from these three corpora using the theoretical background about the use of modals from researches conducted by other scholars. Material The nature of the primary research consists in choosing modals for analysis and comparing the frequency of use of modals in sources of different genres and in spoken language taking into accoun t the situation in American variety of English a hundred years earlier and contemporary situation. I have used the corpora of English language to investigate the frequency of use of modals in different varieties of English though the primary purpose of the research was to compare and contrast the findings from the British variant of English and American variant of English with regard to the historical development of the latter.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Modals in Different Varieties of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this respect, the most influential limitation was the lack of information on the historical development of the British variant of English over a long period of time. As the changes in the American variant of English could be explored from 1810 to 2000, the changes in the British variant of English could be explored only regarding the results from two last decades dating from 1 990 till 2010. Though I used the modals and quasi-modals that are typical of the English language with regard to all varieties of the language, I faced the difficulties concerning the variety of combinations that were typical of the modals and quasi-modals. In other words, further research could focus on the combinations of other parts of speech with modals and the nature of expressions in terms of mood (imperative or subjunctive) and the attitude of the author of the utterance. So, the main sources of data include the Corpus of Contemporary American English, the Corpus of Historical American English, and the British National Corpus. I used the Corpus of Contemporary American English to see the frequency of occurrence of different modals in spoken language, fiction, articles from magazines, newspaper articles, and academic sources with regard to the period (1990-2010) to which the use refers. The Corpus of Historical American English provides researchers with a richer variety of res ults as it includes the examples of speech dating from 1810 till 2000. In this respect, I was able to analyse the frequency of use of modals in different periods of time with regard to the sources they appeared in, including fiction, non-fiction, magazines, and news. This information enabled me to conduct a research on a great variety of issues concerning the use of word and the peculiarities of word choice for different sources such as fiction and non-fiction. Besides, it is possible to analyse the percentage of the appearance of modals in fiction and non-fiction. One of the limitations, in this regard, concerns the historical approach that, if used, could explain the frequency of use of certain words due to changes in the country and the world including economical factors, social and cultural development, and shift in lifestyle and values of the population. The British National Corpus provides researchers with the information on the variety of different word combinations. In this respect, I was able to investigate the frequency of using modals in different setting in terms of the genre and parts of speech with which the modal occurred. The queries could be limited in terms of written and spoken language inserted into examples. In other words, the research turned out to be full of unexpected limitations. To be more exact, the limitations should have been imposed into the research mode so that I could get the clear data for analysis at the end of the investigation. However, this was not doe at the beginning of the research; so, I had to limit the number of queries and choose more objective and universal samples from all three corpora. In other words, the choice of data was likely to affect the results in an important way if the number of queries is not restricted.Advertising Looking for research paper on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Method Though the comparative analysis of the use of modals and quasi-modals was conducted by Mair and Leech (2006), it is necessary to view the frequency of use of certain modals and quasi-modals that were reported to have the lowest difference in American and British variants of English. In other words, the study is based on the findings by Mair and Leech (2006) who managed to identify the use of modals and quasi-modals in examples provided by American and British English language corpora. In this respect, the issue of primary importance is the decline of use of modals and increase in the number of quasi-modals used in the late twentieth – early twenty-first century. Though modals were used more frequently at the beginning of the reported period and the frequency of their use declined toward the end of the reported period, the frequency of use of quasi-modals was just the opposite and it increased toward the end of the same period. I searched for the frequency of use of the modals shall and should and quasi-modals be supposed to and need to. First, I entered the modal should into the entry boxes of all three corpora mentioned above including the Corpus of Contemporary American English, the Corpus of Historical American English, and the British National Corpus. This enabled me to see the changes in the use of the modal in a short period of time in the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus; also, I could trace more obvious changes in the frequency of use of the modal with the help of queries made through the Corpus of Historical American English. The next step I took was the same procedure with the modal shall, and quasi-modals be supposed to and need to. The final stage of the research presupposed analysis of data and relevant conclusion made on the basis of the findings. In this respect, I was able to see the changes that took place in the use of modals that were previously reported to have similar changes in both var ieties of English including British and American variants and quasi-modals that were previously reported to have a greater difference in changes in these two variants of English language. As reported by Mair and Leech, the modal shall was used less frequently by people who used the British variant of English (-43.7% compared to the data received in 1960s) and by people who used the American variant of English language (-43.8%). Similar changes can be observed with regard to the frequency of use of the modal should (-11.8% of British and -13.5% of American). The quasi-modals were used more frequently compared to the period of 1960s when the first set of data was received. Thus, the quasi-modal be supposed to was used more frequently in the British variant (+113.6%) and in the American variant (+6.3%) which shows a great difference in the variants. The quasi-modal need to was used more often as well (+249% in British and +123% in American). Results and Analysis The first set of data c omes from the comparison of styles and genres used by the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus. The following figure suggests the data received from the British National Corpus. Figure 1: Frequency of use of the modal should represented by the results from the British National Corpus. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper non-acad academic miscellaneous 9,724.94 7,015.77 8,241.27 7,571.64 8,142.98 10,221.98 11,257.89 Key: non-acad – is the set of non-academic sources whereas written and spoken are not clearly differentiated. Thus, the British National Corpus provided the information concerning the genres and styles typical for the use of modal should. I turned out that the modal should is used more frequently in spoken language, in academic sources and in sources considered miscellaneous. These results enabled me to conclude that the frequency of the use of the modal should is still very high with regard to the r eported decline of the use. The next step concerned the use of the same modal traced with the help of the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Figure 2: Frequency of use of the modal should represented by the results from the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper academic 930.65 622.75 721.51 657.63 897.18 Though the non-academic and miscellaneous sources are not identified as separate subgenres, it is necessary to show that the difference between the British and the American variants is still very high as 9,724.94 words per million in the British variant is much larger than 930.65 words per million in the American variant of English. In this respect, the difference is already obvious though it is necessary to see the situation that occurred in the frequency of use of the modal should with the help of the results from the Corpus of Historical American English. This corpus enables me to claim that the frequency of use of the modal should declined greatly while comparing the results from different decades during the entire nineteenth century and the entire twentieth century. In this respect, the most frequently the modal should was used in the period of 1820s though even then the use of this modal was not as large as the current situation in the British variant of English as there was an average number of 1,649.88 words per million whereas the use of the same modal in the contemporary British variant of English equals an average figure of 7,423.46 words per million. The next modal that was analysed is shall. The first corpus that should be discussed in this section is the Corpus of Historical American English which provides us with the picture showing changes in the frequency of use of the modal shall comparing the nineteenth and twentieth century. In this respect, we can see that the decline is great, especially while comparing the results on the frequency of use of the modal shall in the early nineteenth century and the ones from the late twentieth century. Thus the results from the 1810s equal 1,924.31 words per million whereas the same figure is much smaller for the period of 1990-2000 (53.27 words per million). It is also notable that the most frequently the modal shall was used in fiction and in academic sources whereas spoken language, examples from magazines and newspapers show smaller frequency of the use of the modal shall. Figure 3: Frequency of use of the modal shall represented by the results from the British National Corpus. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper non-acad academic miscellaneous 2,195.98 2,310.60 315.07 330.20 1,160.58 2,139.88 2,024.27 This figure shows that the results differ greatly with regard to the use of the modal shall in the American and in British variants of English. At the same time, the results concerning the genre of use partially coincide for two variants of English language though the British s poken language as well as examples from miscellaneous sources demonstrates the same or similar frequency as the ones from fiction and academic sources as well as in the American variant of English. Figure 4: Frequency of use of the modal should represented by the results from the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper academic 22.59 70.29 21.88 14.03 63.93 The results received from the Corpus of Contemporary American English are similar to those reported concerning the use of the Corpus of Historical American English where the use of the modal shall prevailed in fiction and academic sources while it was the least frequent in examples from newspapers (14.03 words per million). This figure can be compared to the results from the same genres for the British variant of English language where the frequency of use of the modal shall equals 2,310.60 words per million and 2,139.88 words per million for the academic sources . The next unit for analysis was the frequency of use of the quasi-modal be supposed to in British and American variants of English. It is necessary to note that this quasi-modal was analysed in terms of pure entries (supposed to was analysed in queries in order to ensure that all variants are included be supposed to, is supposed to, are supposed to, am supposed to, ‘m supposed to, ‘re supposed to, etc.) In this respect, the results for entry supposed to differed greatly for the initial entry be supposed to. As this imposed some limitation on the analysis, I decided to restrict results to the absolute queries that were supposed to include all potentially relevant results. The results from the Corpus of Historical American English enable us to see that the obvious changes started in the 1930s when the frequency of use of the quasi-modal supposed to was characterised with the 43.21 words per million whereas every coming decade showed increased frequency of use of this qua si-modal leading to the results of 98.32 words per million for the period of 2000s. One of the most notable features of the frequency of use of the quasi-modal supposed to concerns the sources of examples as in all periods reported in the Corpus of Historical American English, spoken language provided us with the most frequent use of this quasi-modal. The results received from the Corpus of Contemporary American English differ slightly from the ones in the Corpus of Historical American English. Thus, we can see the difference from the figure: Figure 5: Frequency of use of the quasi-modal supposed to represented by the results from the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper academic 103.92 121.42 53.12 60.82 24.80 This figure shows that the main sources where the frequency of the use of the quasi-modal supposed to was higher than in the spoken language is the fiction. The results from the British National Corpus are similar to the situation presented in the Corpus of Historical American English where spoken language shows the highest frequency of use of the quasi-modal supposed to. The final unit for analysis is the quasi-modal need to; as reported by Mair and Leech, the use of this quasi-modal increased dramatically with regard to the results from 1960s compared to the contemporary situation. We can clearly see the frequency of use of the quasi-modal need to with the help of results from the Corpus of Historical American English where the lowest frequency can be observed in the period of 1810s (2.54 words per million) while the highest frequency of use is typical of the period of 2000s (211.14 words per million). Figure 6: Frequency of use of the quasi-modal need to represented by the results from the British National Corpus. Section/use per million spoken fiction magazine newspaper non-acad academic miscellaneous 2,555.89 1,028.71 1,589.51 873.46 1,438.18 1,840.44 1,882.11 This figu re shows that the use of the quasi-modal need to was the most frequent in the spoken variant of the British English whereas the average frequency is about 1,601.19 words per million which is twice as high as the frequency of use of this quasi-modal in newspapers and is almost 1.5 as low as the frequency of use of the quasi-modal need to in spoken language. The results received from the Corpus of Contemporary American English provide us with the information similar to the one from the British National corpus which enables us to conclude that the frequency of use of the quasi-modal need to increased compared to the beginning of the early nineteenth century. Conclusion The use of modal words and combinations has changed over the last hundred years with regard to the data from the British national corpus (BNC), Corpus of Contemporary American English, and Corpus of Historical American English as the sources of primary research materials. Besides, it is necessary to note that the use of the modals shall and should differs from the changes in the frequency of use of quasi-modals supposed to and need to. In other words, the data from the corpora demonstrates certain tendencies when the frequency of use of modals declines contrasted to the frequency of use of quasi-modals which increases. The most obvious changes concern the spoken language where the use of quasi-modals supposed to and need to is higher than in all other genres and sources of data. However, the quasi-modal supposed to is reported to be frequently used in fiction rather than in spoken language according to the results received from the Corpus of Contemporary American English. At the same time, the frequency of use of the modals shall and should tends to decline compared to the results received in the early nineteenth century. Collins, Peter. Modals and Quasi-Modals in English. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009. Print. Facchinetti, Roberta, Manfred G. Krug, and Frank Robert Palmer (Eds.). Modality in Contemporar y English. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2003. Krug, Manfred G. Emerging English modals: a corpus-based study of grammaticalization. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2000. Mair, Christian, and Geoffrey Leech. â€Å"Current Changes in English Syntax.† 2006. Accessed from

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The current trends in hardware Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The current trends in hardware - Essay Example An OS also takes care of sharing of a system by multiple users and also handle the various authentication issues in multiple user systems. The sharing of resources also forms a vital functionality of the OS in a multi user system. Conventionally all these functionalities of the OS are implemented in the kernel. And the kernel is accessible to all the programs that run in the system. Almost all systems use a system language or command to program the kernel. This is not modifiable by the user and remains outside his purview. Even if it needs to be modified, the complexity and the vastness is overwhelming and it requires heavy debugging and testing to ensure that the modification is bug free and it does not affect the rest of the functionalities. Also the pageability of kernels is extremely limited and even if it can be pages it takes a lot of work to decide what can be paged. All these restrictions and drawbacks of adding and modifying functionalities are slowly being eliminated and on ly those functionalities that are absolutely necessary are being added to the kernel. Innovative ideas to efficiently retrieving and handling information are thus being ignored because of the complexities involved in implementing them. Though Lisp Machine and Smalltalk managed to bring this user modifiable functionality in an easy to use language they failed to separate the user from the program. This principle of separation between the user and the program is one of the core principles of an operating system by definition. Another design method is the multi server system which attempts to break down the kernel into logical parts with interfaces between them. This makes it easier for the user to add more functionality separately to the specified block. Also the debugging phase becomes much easier since the code is less. This OS design addresses the users need to customize but the barrier between the user and the system still remains. I.e. the user still needs certain privileges to m odify the system code. [9][2][16][17][3] [5][6][10] GNU Hurd This new development seeks to address all the drawbacks mentioned till now and also to provide the dynamic user modifiable functionality to the OS. This new design seeks to achieve this goal by restricting the area of the system code. It makes the system code pertain to only specified basic areas and leaves the rest of the process to be defined by the user. The user can also add the remaining parts and can share these parts with other users without being bothered about the viability and the authenticity of the code and system. Let us take a look at each of the mechanism that is part of the new design system called Hurd. In the Translator Mechanism, the Hurd is found to use the Mach ports as a method to communicate between the user and the server. Every mach port is different and it implements a certain set of protocols which identify the operations that it can do and also represents the object of the port. The protocols or rules of conduct specified by the Hurd are the input/output protocol, the file, the socket protocol, and the process protocol. Each file can have a translator associated with it. Here the server executes the translator program associated with each file instead of each file returning its own port. The translator is allotted a port to the actual contents of the file,